Use this documentation with care! It describes
the heavily outdated version 5, which was actively
developed around 2010 and is considered dead by the
rsyslog team for many years now.
This documentation reflects the latest update of the previously existing (now removed) v5-stable branch. It describes the 5.10.2 version, which was never released. As such, it contains some content that does not apply to any released version.
To obtain the doc that properly matches your installed v5 version, obtain the doc set from your distro. Each version of rsyslog contained the version that exactly matches it.
As general advise, it is strongly suggested to upgrade to the current version supported by the rsyslog project. The current version can always be found on the right-hand side info box on the rsyslog web site.
Note that there is no rsyslog community support available for this heavily outdated version. If you need to stick with it, please ask your distribution for support.
Rsyslog Debug Support¶
For harder to find issues, rsyslog has integrated debug support. Usually, this is not required for finding configuration issues but rather to hunt for program or plugin bugs. However, there are several occasions where debug log has proven to be quite helpful in finding out configuration issues.
Part of debug supports is activated by
--enable-rtinst ./configure option (“rtinst” means runtime
instrumentation). Turning debugging on obviously costs some performance
(in some cases considerable). For typical cases, runtime instrumentation
is not required.
SIGUSR1 - turns debug messages on and off. Note that for this signal to work, rsyslogd must be running with debugging enabled, either via the -d command line switch or the environment options specified below. It is not required that rsyslog was compiled with debugging enabled (but depending on the settings this may lead to better debug info).
SIGUSR2 - outputs debug information (including active threads and a call stack) for the state when SIGUSR2 was received. This is a one-time output. Can be sent as often as the user likes.
Note: this signal may go away in later releases and may be replaced by something else.
There are two environment variables that set several debug settings:
The “RSYSLOG_DEBUGLOG” (sample: RSYSLOG_DEBUGLOG=”/path/to/debuglog/”) writes (allmost) all debug message to the specified log file in addition to stdout. Some system messages (e.g. segfault or abort message) are not written to the file as we can not capture them.
Runtime debug support is controlled by “RSYSLOG_DEBUG”.
The “RSYSLOG_DEBUG” environment variable contains an option string with the following options possible (all are case insensitive):
- LogFuncFlow - print out the logical flow of functions (entering and exiting them)
- FileTrace - specifies which files to trace LogFuncFlow. If not set (the default), a LogFuncFlow trace is provided for all files. Set to limit it to the files specified. FileTrace may be specified multiple times, one file each (e.g. export RSYSLOG_DEBUG=”LogFuncFlow FileTrace=vm.c FileTrace=expr.c”
- PrintFuncDB - print the content of the debug function database whenever debug information is printed (e.g. abort case)!
- PrintAllDebugInfoOnExit - print all debug information immediately before rsyslogd exits (currently not implemented!)
- PrintMutexAction - print mutex action as it happens. Useful for finding deadlocks and such.
- NoLogTimeStamp - do not prefix log lines with a timestamp (default is to do that).
- NoStdOut - do not emit debug messages to stdout. If RSYSLOG_DEBUGLOG is not set, this means no messages will be displayed at all.
- Debug - if present, turns on the debug system and enables debug output
- DebugOnDemand - if present, turns on the debug system but does not enable debug output itself. You need to send SIGUSR1 to turn it on when desired.
- help - display a very short list of commands - hopefully a life saver if you can’t access the documentation…
Why Environment Variables?¶
You may ask why we use environment variables for debug-system parameters and not the usual rsyslog.conf configuration commands. After all, environment variables force one to change distro-specific configuration files, whereas regular configuration directives would fit nicely into the one central rsyslog.conf.
The problem here is that many settings of the debug system must be initialized before the full rsyslog engine starts up. At that point, there is no such thing like rsyslog.conf or the objects needed to process it present in an running instance. And even if we would enable to change settings some time later, that would mean that we can not correctly monitor (and debug) the initial startup phase of rsyslogd. What makes matters worse is that during this startup phase (and never again later!) some of the base debug structure needs to be created, at least if the build is configured for that (many of these things only happen in –enable-rtinst mode). So if we do not initialize the debug system before actually startig up the rsyslog core, we get a number of data structures wrong.
For these reasons, we utilize environment variables to initialize and configure the debugging system. We understand this may be somewhat painful, but now you know there are at least some good reasons for doing so.
Getting debug information from a running Instance¶
It is possible to obtain debugging information from a running instance, but this requires some setup. We assume that the instance runs in the background, so debug output to stdout is not desired. As such, all debug information needs to go into a log file.
To create this setup, you need to
- point the RSYSLOG_DEBUGLOG environment variable to a file that is accessible during the while runtime (we strongly suggest a file in the local file system!)
- set RSYSLOG_DEBUG at least to “DebugOnDeman NoStdOut”
- make sure these environment variables are set in the correct (distro-specifc) startup script if you do not run rsyslogd interactively
These settings enable the capability to react to SIGUSR1. The signal will toggle debug status when received. So send it one to turn debug loggin on, and send it again to turn debug logging off again. The third time it will be turned on again … and so on.
On a typical system, you can signal rsyslogd as follows:
kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/rsyslogd.pid`
Important: there are backticks around the “cat”-command. If you use the regular quote it won’t work. The debug log will show whether debug logging has been turned on or off. There is no other indication of the status.
Note: running with DebugOnDemand by itself does in practice not have any performance toll. However, switching debug logging on has a severe performance toll. Also, debug logging synchronizes much of the code, removing a lot of concurrency and thus potential race conditions. As such, the very same running instance may behave very differently with debug logging turned on vs. off. The on-demand debug log functionality is considered to be very valuable to analyze hard-to-find bugs that only manifest after a long runtime. Turning debug logging on a failing instance may reveal the cause of the failure. However, depending on the failure, debug logging may not even be successfully be turned on. Also note that with this rsyslog version we cannot obtain any debug information on events that happened before debug logging was turned on.
If an instance hangs, it is possible to obtain some useful information about the current threads and their calling stack by sending SIGUSR2. However, the usefulness of that information is very much depending on rsyslog compile-time settings, must importantly the –enable-rtinst configure flag. Note that activating this option causes additional overhead and slows down rsyslgod considerable. So if you do that, you need to check if it is capable to handle the workload. Also, threading behavior is modified by the runtime instrumentation.
Sending SIGUSR2 writes new process state information to the log file each time it is sent. So it may be useful to do that from time to time. It probably is most useful if the process seems to hang, in which case it may (may!) be able to output some diagnostic information on the current processing state. In that case, turning on the mutex debugging options (see above) is probably useful.
Interpreting the Logs¶
Debug logs are primarily meant for rsyslog developers. But they may still provide valuable information to users. Just be warned that logs sometimes contains informaton the looks like an error, but actually is none. We put a lot of extra information into the logs, and there are some cases where it is OK for an error to happen, we just wanted to record it inside the log. The code handles many cases automatically. So, in short, the log may not make sense to you, but it (hopefully) makes sense to a developer. Note that we developers often need many lines of the log file, it is relatively rare that a problem can be diagnosed by looking at just a couple of (hundered) log records.
The debug log will reveal potentially sensible information, including user accounts and passwords, to anyone able to read the log file. As such, it is recommended to properly guard access to the log file. Also, an instance running with debug log enabled runs much slower than one without. An attacker may use this to place carry out a denial-of-service attack or try to hide some information from the log file. As such, it is suggested to enable DebugOnDemand mode only for a reason. Note that when no debug mode is enabled, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 are completely ignored.
When running in any of the debug modes (including on demand mode), an interactive instance of rsyslogd can be aborted by pressing ctl-c.